An acquired brain injury is an injury to brain cells that occurs after birth. It can be due to various causes and depending on where the damage is located, one or more processes will be affected. Also, a developing brain (children) would not be affected as would that of a fully developed brain (adults).
Clinical profile characterized by direct injury to the cranial structures, brain or meninges due to external traumatic force (contusion, penetrating injury or acceleration-deceleration forces).
These may affect the brain in different ways:
CVA, also known as a stroke, deals with a clinical profile consisting of caused by pathological conditions of the blood vessels that cause damage to any area of the brain, resulting in various deficits depending on the area affected.
Two types exist:
A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of cells within the skull. As this is a tight space, abnormal growth of tissue causes pressure on the brain affecting its proper functioning.
Brain tumors are classified into two types:
This is a situation in which there is a reduced supply of oxygen to the brain. The brain is extremely sensitive even to a brief decrease of oxygen, so that a complete lack of oxygen over 5 minutes or a reduced oxygen supply for 15 minutes can cause permanent brain damage.
Some causes are drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning (smoke inhalation), strangulation, pulmonary embolism, overdose, myocardial infarction, anaphylactic shock and respiratory failure associated with pneumonia or a prolonged epileptic status (persistent seizure).
Infections are caused by an invasion of microbial pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites) and the reaction of the tissue to their presence and the toxins they produce.
The most prominent are: