It is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior which manifests during the developmental period (it is a neurodevelopmental disorder, but we deemed it appropriate to devote a separate category to it).
This may be due to multiple causes (metabolic, infectious, chromosomal, etc..) And arise at different times (before the baby is born, during birth or due to a serious illness in infancy).
Social and practical skills are affected, that is to say, the skills needed for daily living, work and play in the community: communication, social and interpersonal skills, self-care, domestic life, self-control, basic academic skills (reading, writing and basic math), work, leisure, health and safety. It is considered that a limitation exists in adaptive capacities if there is a deficit in at least two of these areas when compared with children of the same age and culture. Bearing in mind that intellectual disability manifests when a person with significant limitations interacts with their environment, how this manifests depends just as much on the person as it does on the barriers or obstacles presented by this environment.
As this is more or less a facilitator, disability is expressed differently. Thus, an individual's intellectual disability is not a fixed entity and impossible to change. And will be modified by biological growth and development of the individual and the availability and quality of support received, with constant and ongoing interaction between the subject and his or her environment.