Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects 6% of the population in Spain, and is more common in boys than in girls.
Due to the complexity of this disorder, ADHD cannot be attributed to a single cause but probably results from a combination of different factors. However, research has identified that the primary causes of ADHD are genetic (76% heritability) and environmental (traumatic brain injury experienced in childhood, central nervous system infections, prematurity, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy or fetal exposure to toxic substances during pregnancy).
This disorder is characterized by the core symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. There are subtypes of ADHD based on the predominant symptom (attention deficit or hyperactivity-impulsivity) or on whether the symptoms appear combined.
The main signs of each category are:
For the diagnosis of ADHD, the aforementioned symptoms must have been present prior to age 12 with a frequency and severity that exceeds what is expected for the individual’s age, and must negatively affect the child’s performance both at school and at home. In addition, the doctor will also ensure that any of these symptoms are not due to another disorder.